NATURAL LAW SCHOOL JURISPRUDENCE

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<p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Natural law is the moral theory of jurisprudence and often states that laws should be on the basis of ethics and morals. This law also states that law should focus on what is &lsquo;correct&rsquo;.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">In addition, natural law was found by humans on their disposition of reasoning and choosing between good and bad. Hence, it is said that this law plays a significant role in establishing moral and ethical standards.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><strong><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Natural Law &ndash; It&rsquo;s Meaning &amp; Definition</span></span></strong></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">There is no unanimity about the definition and exact meaning of natural law and the term &ldquo;natural law theory&rdquo; has been interpreted differently at different times depending on the needs of the developing legal thought. But the greatest attribute of the natural law theory is its adaptability to meet new challenges of the transient society. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><strong><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Natural Law &amp; Positive Law </span></span></strong></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">There is another way of looking at natural law. It is viewing at it form positivistic or empiricist angle abstract metaphysical ideals and notions which is described generally as natural law.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">According to FULLER &ldquo;by legal positivism I mean that direction of legal thought which insists on drawing a sharp distinction between law that &#39;is&#39; and that &#39;ought&#39; to be, natural law on the other hand is the view which denies the possibility of a rigid separation of the &#39;is &rsquo; and the &#39;ought &rsquo; and which tolerates a confusion of them in legal discussion. There are of course, many &#39;systems &rsquo; of natural law. Men have drawn their criteria of justice and of right law from many sources from the nature of things, from the nature of man, form the nature of God But what unites the various schools of natural law and justifies brining them under a common rubric, is the fact in all of them a &nbsp;certain coalescence of the &#39;is&rsquo; and &#39;ought &rsquo; will be found.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><strong><u><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Natural law is a philosophy of law that focuses on the laws of nature.</span></span></u></strong></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Moreover, this school of jurisprudence represents the belief that there are laws common to all societies. This is irrespective of whether they are written down or can officially enact.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Natural law can be broadly divided into four classes:</span></span></span></span></p> <ol> <li><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Ancient theories</span></span></span></span></li> <li><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Medieval theories</span></span></span></span></li> <li><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Dark Ages</span></span></span></span></li> <li><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Renaissance theories</span></span></span></span></li> </ol> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Modern theories</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><strong><u><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Ancient Theories</span></span></u></strong></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><strong><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Greece</span></span></strong></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">The Greeks are said to have laid the foundations of the natural law school. The Greek thinkers developed the idea of natural law and laid down its essential features.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Heraclitus observed a certain rhythm in events and termed it as &lsquo;destiny, order and reason of the world.</span></span> <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Heraclitus was the first Greek philosopher who pointed at the three main characteristic features of law of nature, namely</span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman"> <li><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Destiny, </span></span></span></span></li> <li><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">&nbsp;Order and</span></span></span></span></li> <li><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">&nbsp;Reason</span></span></span></span></li> </ol> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><strong><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Socrates view on Natural Law </span></span></strong>(470 399 BC)</span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">The name of <strong>Socrates</strong> occupies a prominent place among the Stoic philosophers of the ancient time. It is because of the &quot;human insight&rdquo; that a man has the capacity to distinguish between good and bad and he is able to appreciate the moral values. Thus, according to <strong>Socrates</strong>, &ldquo;virtue is knowledge &quot;and &ldquo;whatever is not virtuous is sin&rdquo;. To him, justice may be of two kinds, namely,</span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman"> <li><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Natural justice, and</span></span></span></span></li> <li><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Legal justice.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol> <p style="margin-left:0.5in; margin-right:0in">&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin-left:0.5in; margin-right:0in">&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin-left:0.5in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><strong><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Aristotle&rsquo;s view on Natural Law </span></span></strong>(384-322 B.C.)</span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0.5in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Stoice &nbsp;had widened the meaning and scope of natural law, which no longer remained a mere knowledge of universal and ultimate laws but extended to man&rsquo;s insight which enables him to appreciate the absolute eternal moral rules. <strong>Aristotle</strong> came out with a more logical interpretation of the natural law theory. According to him, a man is a part of nature in two ways.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0.5in; margin-right:0in">&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><strong><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Plato </span></span></strong><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">(427-347 BC) </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0.5in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Socrates&rsquo; disciple, Plato carried further the natural law philosophy through his concept of ideal state which he termed as &ldquo;republic&rdquo;. Plato extended that only intelligent and worthy person should be the king.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0.5in; margin-right:0in">&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><strong><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Rome</span></span></strong></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">The Romans did not confine natural law to theoretical considerations. Instead, they explored its utility by applying its concepts practically. Romans used principles of natural law to transform their rigid legal system into a cosmopolitan one.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><strong><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Stoics view on Natural Law</span></span></strong></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0.5in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Stoics was inspired by Aristotle&rsquo;s theory and based on Aristotle&rsquo;s theory developed his own theory of natural law but made some key changes and made it more ethical. According to him, the world is governed by reason</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><strong><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Dark Ages</span></span></strong></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><strong><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Nature to be overcome</span></span></strong></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0.5in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">During dark ages the early Christian Fathers expressed views on the &ldquo;law of nature&rdquo; from a theological base. Important of them is ST.AUGUSTINE. According to him, the union with divine is the end of law.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><strong><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Medieval Theories</span></span></strong></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0.5in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">The period from12th century to mid-fourteenth century is reckoned as the &ldquo;medieval age &quot; in the European history. This period was dominated by the ecclesiastical doctrines which the Christian Fathers propagated for establishing the superiority of Church over eh state. They used natural law theory to propagate Christianity and to establish a new legal order and political ideology based on morals and theology. The Christian saints especially Ambrose, St; Augustine &nbsp;and Gregrory propagated a view that divine law was superior to all other laws.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><strong>St. Thomas </strong><strong><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Aquinas </span></span>(1225-1274)</strong></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0.5in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Catholic philosophers and theologians moved away from the orthodox interpretation of natural law and gave a more logical and systematic theory of natural law. He is considered to be the representative of the natural law theory of his age.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><strong><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">Renaissance Theories</span></span></strong></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0.5in; margin-right:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">General awakening among the masses coupled with new discoveries of science during the 14th and 15th centuries shattered the foundation of established values.&nbsp; <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;">This period saw major changes in all aspects of knowledge, this period was marked by the emergence of new ideas, new branches of knowledge and discoveries of science shattered the foundation of established values.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:0.5in; margin-right:0in">&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in">&nbsp;</p>

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