Fundamental Rights

  • Civil law

    Doctrine of Reasonable Classification

    Article 14 forbids class legislation. It does not forbids reasonable classification of object and transactions by the Legislature for the…

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  • Civil law

    Doctrine of Arbitrariness

    Arbitrariness is the quality of being “determined by chance, whim, or impulse, and not by necessity, reason, or principle”. Arbitrary decisions…

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  • Civil law

    The modern concept of definition of state under Article 12 of the Constitution

    Article 12 of the Constitution reads as under;             “In this part unless the context otherwise requires “the State” includes…

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  • Civil law

    Whether judiciary is state under Article 12 of the Constitution?

    The judiciary although an organ of the State like Executive and Legislature is not specifically mentioned in Article 12. So…

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  • Civil law

    Remembering landmark judgment I.R. Coelho (dead) by LRs v. State of T.N. (2007)

    The Hon’ble Supreme Court considered the fundamental question that whether on and after 24th April, 1973, when basic structure doctrine…

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  • Civil law

    Relationship between directive principles of state policy and fundamental rights

    Initially, the courts adopted a strict and literal legal position in this respect. The Supreme Court adopting the literal interpretative…

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  • How the Burden of Proof shifts under Article 32

    Written by: Shivam Kumar Gupta Generally, in the cases of the fundamental rights infringement, the right of onus falls on…

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  • The Scope of Right to live with dignity is not only to the living but also to his dead body

    “As more men become more educated and women get educated, the value system has to be more enhanced and the…

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