India's Freedom Struggle to form "New India"

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STRUGGLE OF FREEDOM

 

 

The Modern Era usually considered, to begin with, the conquest of India by the British in the 18th century. Before this era, the Indian subcontinent has seen the countless invasion from the foreign powers over 2000 years. Lastly, Britishers came and ruled over India for nearly 200 years. They drained every possible wealth with their might army & naval force. But the might & never sloping Sun of this Empire has been ended by countless Great people who are the reason that youth of India may join any occupation & enjoy life with freedom instead of serving to Britishers & cleaning their Toilets.

 

        Here is a brief view of the struggle for freedom-

Revolts before 1857

With the introduction of land reforms & other ambitious policy by Britishers, the life of tribal people could no longer be continued with peace. They were forced to pay taxes for own land. This led to huge clashes between empire and the tribal Like Revolt of

  • Mal Paharias of Rajmahal Hills (1772), The Chau Revolt (1774), Santhal, Kashi, Jantia revolt in which prominent leader Nongbah hanged in public by the Britishers, Revolt led by Rani Chennamma of Kittur(1829).

 

                        Revolt of 1857

The Political, social, economic & religious practises of the Britishers caused anger & discontent among the people of India. There were few revolts that have a widespread effect on the British Empire. Some of them were –

  • Wahabi Movement led by the Muslim in Bengal
  • Kanpur Revolt led by the Nana Saheb with his commanders Tantia Tope
  • The revolt led by Rani Laxmibai in Jhansi in which she died bravely.
  • The Sepoy revolt led by Mangal Pandey.
  • Other Peasant & Princely revolt in Travancore, Poligars, Jabalpur.

 

Nationalist Movement(1885-1919)

Nationalism is a feeling of love, care and the pride of one’s country. The Nationalist Movement took place due to-

  • Awakening of the Indians to their rich cultural heritage.
  • Introducing with the western idea of democracy and Nationalism
  • Economic exploitation by the British.
  • Growth of the communication, regional, press and literature.

In this period, INC was formed in 1885 by A.O Hume and Dadabhai Naoroji, Pheroshah Mehta, who believed in submitting the petition to have their grievances redressed for the country & supported Boycott movement, Swadesi Movement with a hope to bring the British to their knees & also Congress demanded Swaraj in 1906. But the extremist like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bhagat Singh protest against empire violently & claimed Swaraj as a birthright.

             Nationwide freedom struggle

This nationwide freedom struggle in India started with the entry of Gandhi Ji with his concept of Satyagraha. There were few movements that got landmarked in igniting nationwide freedom struggle like

  •  The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
  • Chauri Chaura incident
  • Khilafat movement
  • Non- Cooperation movement
  • Quit India movement

With the non- cooperation movement, the Swaraj was demanded & later Swaraj party was formed in 1923. The leaders continued to fight for independence inside the Central Legislative Assembly & in public. The prominent leaders Dr Rajendra Prasad, Dr M.A. Ansari, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, CR Das, Motilal Nehru, Jawahar Lal Nehru demanded ‘Purna Swaraj’ at Lahore Session 1929, & Congress drafted the constitution which was acceptable for all. Gandhi Ji led Civil disobedience with his historic Dandi March, Quit India Movement 1942 opposing policies of British Rule & Cripps Mission. Though Britishers tried to crush down the struggle but with their every strategy like Shimla Conference. Subhash Chandra Bose, a socialist thinker fought with the British Empire from 1943 to 1945 with 45,000 soldiers though, it was failed but boosted freedom struggle. After the arrival of Labour Party & realising that the British Government could no longer dominate India, the British Government declared the Independence of India on 15 August 1947 with few conditions.

 

 Sovereign Democratic Republic of India (1950)

After getting Independence, there was indeed need of drafting committee to draft constitution for India which was by Dr Bhimrao Ambedker. The constitution was framed keeping an eye the multi-religious, lingual & multi-cultural country with the aim to unite all of them, provide everyone equal Sovereign Power & Democratic Republic Country. So the 26 Jan. 1950 when new Constitution was enacted, the day is celebrated as Republic Day on which India got its real entity.

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